Washington State

Office of the Attorney General

Attorney General

Bob Ferguson

It is time for a genuine and robust conversation about equity and reconciliation for Indigenous communities and individuals in the United States.   

Washington State Truth and Reconciliation Tribal Advisory Committee Members are:

  • Rebecca Black, Quinault Indian Nation
  • Diana Bob, Lummi Nation
  • Abriel Johnny, Tlingit/Cowichan First Nations
  • Tamika LaMere, Anishinaabe/Little Shell Chippewa
  • Edward Washines, Yakama Nation

Truth and Reconciliation is a process that provides space and time to investigate, name, honor and address generations of harm caused by state and federal wrongdoings that benefited and empowered the white dominant culture through unjust means.

The Truth and Reconciliation Tribal Advisory Committee (TAC) will conduct research and guide agency staff to ensure this process is done in a good way. The TAC will lead staff in the development of recommendations regarding how our state can address the harms caused by Indian boarding schools and other cultural and linguistic termination practices

Tribes and Tribal communities continue to experience issues at higher rates than other groups. To quantify the residual harm caused by removal, termination and assimilation era practices, we need only look to the symptoms present within modern Indigenous communities including: higher rates of incarceration, chronic disease, involvement in the child welfare system and the crisis of our missing and murdered Indigenous women and people. There is an intersection between these effects of colonization. That intersection is trauma. Trauma reverberates through time affecting generations as each new generation accepts the baton of survival passed to them by their ancestors- “trauma not transformed is trauma transferred”.

Washington has made this commitment to create space and time to investigate our state’s history as it relates to the original inhabitants of our land. Termination, removal and assimilation practices brought death, starvation, theft and violence into the lives of Indigenous communities across our nation. Thankfully, these attempts to terminate Indigenous spirituality, culture and language were unsuccessful. It is with gratitude that we begin this healing journey.

Key goals for this work include:

  • Bringing forth a truthful account of the policies and practices that existed throughout the boarding school era and others that lead to cultural and linguistic loss within Tribal communities;
  • Conducting such work with the guidance of Tribes and Tribal people;
  • Developing recommendations to direct Washington State in its work with Tribes and Tribal communities, in its efforts to redress hurtful policies and practices, and to correct verbiage that has and continues to be damaging to Tribes and Tribal people.

Upcoming meetings

Advisory Group Meetings

TAC Subcommittees

The TAC has held several meetings and is looking to expand their work by adding subcommittees. The subcommittees will be:

  1. Elders, Survivors and Descendants Subcommittee
  2. Legal Subcommittee
  3. Cultural and Resource Protection Subcommittee

Click here for more information.

Subcommittee Meetings

Previous advisory committee meetings

Indian Boarding Schools identified as having operated in Washington State, as of 11/2023:


Name of School



Puyallup Indian School also, Puyallup Industrial School

Squaxin Island, WA



Tulalip Mission School

Also, St. Anne’s Catholic Mission

Priest’s Point, WA



Ft. Simcoe Indian Boarding School


Also, Yakima Indian Boarding School

White Swan, WA




S’Kokomish Boarding & Day School

Olympia, WA



Cushman Indian School

Tacoma, WA




Quinaelt Boarding & Day School

Taholah, WA


Sacred Heart Academy


Also, Goodwin Mission School for Indians

Kettle Falls, WA



St. Francis Regis Mission School

Ward, WA


1886- Open                                                

St. Mary’s Mission School


Also, Pascal Sherman Boarding School

Omak, WA


c1887- unknown

Colville Mission School

Kettle Falls, WA




St. George Indian Residential School

Federal Way, WA


St. Joseph’s Boarding School

Federal Way, WA



Neah Bay Boarding & Day School

Neah Bay, WA


Chehalis Boarding & Day School

Oakville, WA



Tonasket Boarding School


Also,      Okanagan Boarding School

Tonasket, WA




Fort Spokane Boarding School

Davenport, WA



Tulalip Indian Industrial School

Tulalip Bay, WA


Additional Resources:

[i] Mpamira-Kaguri, T. (n.d.). Trauma not Transformed is Trauma Transferred: What Baton are you passing on? [Video]. TED Talks. https://www.ted.com/talks/tabitha_mpamira_kaguri_trauma_not_transformed_is_trauma_transferred_what_baton_are_you_passing_on